On December 27, 2008, the Israeli occupation began its military aggression on the Gaza Strip with a process it called "Cast Lead," while the Palestinian resistance chose to call it "The Battle of Al-Furqan", which lasted about 23 days.

The war ended a six-month truce that was reached between the Palestinian resistance and Israel, sponsored by Egypt, in June 2008.
The war resulted in about 1500 martyrs and massive destruction of the infrastructure in Gaza. Despite its end and the passage of years, the leaders of the Israeli occupation have not been punished for their crimes against the Gaza Strip and its residents, despite the recognition of international and human rights organizations in their reports of war crimes against Palestinian civilians.

The "Battle of Al-Furqan" was preceded by an Israeli operation that violated the calm on November 4 of the same year, when it carried out an operation targeting six cadres of the Palestinian resistance, which led to the martyrdom of all of them, but the Palestinian side showed restraint and preferred to continue the calm.

During the war, Israel targeted all vital facilities in the Strip, in addition to schools, universities, mosques, hospitals, medical centers, and UNRWA centers, including the Al-Fakhoora School in Jabalia, in northern Gaza, which was targeted on January 6, 2009 with incendiary white phosphorous bombs. Which led to the death of 41 civilians and the wounding of many, with injuries and burns.
Israel used a number of internationally banned weapons, foremost of which is depleted uranium. The bodies of some victims bore the effects of exposure to uranium diluted in certain proportions, as well as white phosphorous. Human Rights Watch accused Israel of using phosphorous weapons.
The following are the most important stations of this war:

On the morning of December 27, 2008, about eighty planes carried out dozens of air strikes on the Gaza Strip in a short period of time, targeting residential neighborhoods, headquarters, military, security and police centers belonging to the Palestinian government, killing more than two hundred Palestinians and wounding more than seven hundred others.

December 28, 2008, the Israeli occupation army masses armored forces near the border fence separating Israel and the Gaza Strip. In return, the Israeli radio announces the fall of more than sixty Palestinian rockets since the beginning of the Israeli aggression, and says that the resistance factions have used long-range missiles that reached For areas that have not been reached before. This came after the Palestinian resistance threatened to expand the bombing operations to include thousands of new settlements.

December 31, 2008, the death toll rose to about four hundred, and the wounded to more than two thousand, three hundred of them seriously, and in return, the resistance rockets reached Ashkelon and Sderot.
January 1, 2008, Israeli warplanes raided the house of Hamas leader Nizar Rayan in Jabalia camp, leading to his death, along with 15 members of his family, while the Palestinian resistance announced the bombing of the Israeli air base of Hatzerim - for the first time - with a developed Grad missile.

January 2, 2008, demonstrations spread in world capitals, protesting and denouncing the massacres of the Israeli occupation.

January 3, 2008, the Israeli Occupation Army announces the start of the ground operation of Operation "Cast Lead", as well as the start of the recruitment of many military reserve units.

January 5, 2008, on the tenth day of the aggression, the number of victims increased to more than 550 martyrs and 2,700 wounded, according to statistics from the Ministry of Health in Gaza. In return, the Palestinian resistance announces the occurrence of an Israeli special force in an ambush and the shooting down of an Israeli drone.
January 6, 2008, The British newspaper The Times reported that the Israeli army was using internationally banned weapons in its aggression against Gaza, and that it had used white phosphorous shells.

7 January 2008, UNRWA spokesperson Adnan Abu Hasna denies accusations of the occupation that Palestinian militants have used the agency's facilities in war, and the Human Rights Council in Geneva calls for a special session to discuss human rights violations and Israeli aggression on the Gaza Strip.

January 9, 2008, the Security Council adopts a resolution calling for a ceasefire in the Gaza Strip, the withdrawal of Israeli forces, and the reopening of the crossings into the Strip.

January 10, 2008 - Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak orders the army to expand the military operation in the Gaza Strip.

12 January 2008, the Palestinian National Resistance announces the capture of an Israeli soldier during the battles in the Gaza Strip, while the United Nations Human Rights Council adopted a resolution condemning the aggression on the Strip and accused the occupation of committing serious human rights violations, and provided for the formation of a fact-finding committee to investigate Israeli violations .

January 14, 2008, the death toll rises to more than 1015 martyrs, including 315 children, 100 women, and 98 elderly people, while the number of wounded exceeded 4,700.

January 17, 2008, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert announces that the Israeli security cabinet has voted in favor of what he called a unilateral ceasefire in Gaza.

January 18, 2008, the Palestinian resistance factions announce their agreement to the ceasefire announced by the Israeli occupation, give it a week to withdraw its forces from the areas it occupied in the Gaza Strip, and demand the opening of all crossings and corridors for the entry of humanitarian and relief aid and the necessary needs of the Palestinian people in the Gaza Strip.
January 19, 2008, the IDF ground forces begin a gradual withdrawal from the Gaza Strip after the implementation of the ceasefire between Israel and the resistance.
Military officials said that the Israeli forces would complete their withdrawal completely before US President-elect Barack Obama takes office.

January 21, 2008, the Israeli army completes its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, as life has returned to normal after 23 days of the aggression.

The aggression on Gaza resulted in the death of about 1500, including 926 civilians, 412 children, and 111 women, while thousands lost their homes, as more than 9,000 people were displaced, 34 health facilities were destroyed, 67 schools collapsed, 27 mosques were destroyed, and other infrastructure losses.

Despite the occupation’s use of internationally banned weapons - foremost of which is depleted uranium and phosphorous weapons - it failed to achieve its goals, and even suffered great losses, as about a hundred people were killed, including 48 soldiers according to the resistance, in addition to the injury of more than four hundred and the psychological terror that engulfed the occupation and settlers. And material losses estimated by some studies at 2.5 billion dollars.